Nalgonda is a town and a municipality in Nalgonda district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Its name is derived from two Telugu words Nalla (black) and Konda (hills). Nalgonda in the past is referred to as Nilagiri. During the period of Bahamani kingdom, it had been renamed as Nallagonda.. Later in Nizam rule, during the later kings rule the name has been transformed in to Nalgonda (for official uses). But in popular culture it's called as Nallagonda only. Recently A.P. govt. has changed its name to Nalgonda for convenience (for official purpose).
But the popular name, Nallagonda, with which it is referred to by one and all and finds the name frequently even in "Poetry of the famous Telangana Liberation Struggle", should be restored back in view of its history and popular usage.
Nalgonda is located at 17°03 ' N 79°16 ' E / 17.05°N 79.27°E . It has an average elevation of 421 meters (1381 feet ).
As of 2001 India census, Nalgonda had a population of 110,651. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Nalgonda has an average literacy rate of 78%, higher than the national average of 59.5%;: male literacy is 84%, and female literacy is 72%. In Nalgonda, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
During this period, people fashioned tools and weapons by chipping hard stones of convenient size and shape. This feature is testified by the findings of unofficial Paleolithic implements of the Soan type at Yeleshwaram.
Traces of Neolithic culture were found at Chota Yelupu, where sling stones and other objects of interest were unearthed. The existence of Megalithic culture was revealed by the discovery of innumerable burials at various places like Tipparti, Nakrekal, Nalgonda etc.
Mauryas and Satavahanas (230 BCE - 218 BCE)
The political history of the district commences with the Mauryas. Mauryas, during the reign of Ashoka the Great held their sway over this region. Later the region came under the overlordship of the Satavahanas who ruled between 230 BCE - 218 BCE. It was during this period the region established trade contacts with the Roman empire.
Ikshvakus (227 - 306)
The Ikshvakus attained control over the region and ruled with their capital Vijayapuri. During this period Sakas and tled in this region. Buddhism flourished during this period. Iksvaku's are one of the greatest Andhra dynasties ever ruled.
Pallavas and Vishnukundinis
After the Ikshvakus, Pallavas and Yadavass fought for supremacy over the region. Luck favoured the Vishnukundins in the form of Samudragupta's invasion of the South. Vishnukundins ruled from first quarter of the fifth century to the first decade of the seventh century. Later Kubja Vishnuvardhana ruled this territory with Vengi as his capital.
A major portion of the district appears to have passed from the Chalukyas of Badami to the Rashtrakutas. Rashtrakutas fell in 973 and gave room to the Chalukyas of Kalyani. The sway of the Chalukyas continued until the end of the 12th century.
The district passed under the control of the Kakatiyas from the western Chalukyas. During Prataparudra 's time the kingdom was annexed to the Tughluq empire in 1323. During Muhammad bin Tughluq 's period, Musunuri chief Kapayanayaka ceded a part of Nalgonda to Ala-ud-din Hasan Bahman Shah . Later the region came under the rule of Recherlavelamas of Rachakonda and Devarakonda . During Ahmad Shah I 's period the region was annexed to Bahmani kingdom. Jalal Khan in 1455 declared himself king at Nalgonda, but it was a short lived affair. The region was brought back to the Bahmani kingdom.
During the time of the Bahmani Sultan Shihabud-din Mahmun Sultan Quli was appointed as tarafdar of Telangana. From him the region was taken by his son Jamshid. Later the district remained under the control of Qutub Shahis until 1687.
Modern Period: Mughals and Asaf Jahis
Nizam-ul-Mulk (Asaf Jah I) defeated Mubasiz Khan at Shaker Khere in Berar and ruled the Deccan in an autonomous capacity. This district, like the other districts of Telangana, passed under the Asaf Jahis and remained under them for a period of nearly two hundred and twenty five years.
Nalgonda's place in Telangana Rebellion history
It has a major role in the Telangana Rebellion. Much of the struggle revolves round Nallagonda and Warangal districts alone and later spread to other regions as well. Almost all the villages in the district were involved in this. The movement was led by Andhra Maha Sabha and Communists. Marshall Law was imposed in the Dist. in 1946. Many people were killed by Razakars or by feudal lords goons and Nizam's armies. Some 3000-5000 villages were liberated and self governing bodies were formed. Lands were distributed among the poor. Many feudal landlords " Jagirdaars " were killed or ripped of their properties. Battles raged between Communists and Razakars (and Nizam's armies).Finally this ended with Indian Forces " Police Action " and Telangana along with Hyderabad state is merged in to Indian Union. Many leaders like Raavi Narayana Reddy, Mallu Swarajyam (woman revolutionary) and her husband, Arutla Ramachandra Reddy and his wife, Bandi Yadagiri, Suddala Hanumanthu, etc. played an important role in the movement. The district's (peoples) part in the rebellion is even immortalized in the poetry of the Movement which was popular then. These were used as a means to enlighten the common people about the revolt and its leaders.
Education in Nalgonda
Upper Primary Schools
Hr Secondary Schools